Physics High School

## Answers

**Answer 1**

The neutral conductor in a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected **circuit **carries the **unbalanced load **current when the load isn't entirely symmetrical.

The **neutral conductor** carries zero current in a perfectly balanced three-phase system. The sum of the three phase currents equals zero, and the neutral conductor's current is therefore equal to zero. However, when the load isn't entirely symmetrical, the sum of the three phase currents isn't equal to zero, and the neutral conductor carries current, known as the unbalanced load current.The majority of the load in **electric discharge** lighting, data processing, and other similar loads are single-phase loads. As a result, in a 3-phase system, the neutral conductor carries the unbalanced load current produced by single-phase loads in these applications. The neutral conductor's size in a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected circuit is based on the highest single-phase load and not the sum of all three phases. If the highest** single-phase** load is unknown, then the neutral conductor size should be based on the sum of all three phases.

A neutral conductor carries the unbalanced load current in a 4-wire, 3-phase, wye-connected circuit when the major portion of the load is electric discharge lighting, data processing, and other loads where the neutral conductor carries single-phase loads. If the load is balanced, the neutral conductor carries no current. However, if the load is unbalanced, the neutral conductor's size is determined by the highest single-phase load, not the sum of all three phases.

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## Related Questions

Alicia introduces the next advanced treatment protocol, which utilizes a high-powered device that uses intense pulses of electromagnetic radiation and a single wavelength at one time, and is called _____.

### Answers

Alicia introduces the next advanced treatment protocol, which utilizes a high-powered device that uses intense pulses of **electromagnetic radiation** and a single wavelength at one time, and is called laser therapy.

The high-powered device that uses intense pulses of electromagnetic radiation and a single wavelength at one time is known as laser therapy. **Laser therapy** is a type of medical treatment that utilizes concentrated beams of light to relieve pain, inflammation, and accelerate the healing process.

The concentrated light beams generate heat, which is absorbed by the cells and tissues to help in the repair and healing of tissues. There are different types of laser therapies, and each type works differently to address various **medical conditions**.

However, they all utilize the same concept, which is the use of light beams to promote healing and tissue repair. Laser therapy has numerous benefits, including reducing inflammation, improving blood circulation, and promoting the healing process of wounds and tissue damage.

Additionally, it is a non-invasive treatment that does not require any **surgical incisions**, making it a suitable alternative to traditional surgical procedures. Some of the medical conditions that can be treated with laser therapy include musculoskeletal pain, back and neck pain, arthritis, and sports injuries.

The treatment is also effective in treating skin conditions such as acne, eczema, and psoriasis. However, laser therapy may not be appropriate for everyone, and it is essential to consult a healthcare provider before undergoing any medical treatment.

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What is the function of a cell in a circuit?

### Answers

Answer:

It provides e.m.f!

Explanation:

A cell provides e.m.f which is the chemical energy in the cell that is converted into electrical energy. This allows electrons to move and carry current throughout the circuit!

A 100 - ft cable is made using a 12 -gauge (0.1055-in) steel wire and three strands of 10 -gauge (0.1019-in) copper wire. Find the deflection of the cable and the stress in each wire if the cable is subjected to a tension of 400lbf.

### Answers

Given that,A 100 - ft cable is made using a 12 -gauge (0.1055-in) steel wire and **three** strands of 10 -gauge (0.1019-in) copper wire.The **cable** is subjected to a tension of 400 lbf.

The deflection of the cable: We can find the deflection of the cable using the formula.

δ= FL³/48E

Iwhereδ= deflection of the Cable = Tension in the cable = **length** of the cable = Modulus of elasticity = moment of inertia of the cable We know that the cable is made up of a steel wire and 3 copper wires.

The deflection of the cable is 0.084 in. The stress in each wire: The stress in each wire can be **found** using the formulaσ = F/Awhereσ = stress = Tension in the wire = Cross-sectional area of the wire The cross-sectional area of the steel wire: Astell = πd²/4Asteel = π(0.1055 in)²/4Asteel = 0.0087 in².

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A contractor claims that 2 kW of electricity directed into a pump will be sufficient to pump water into a pool that is located 30 m above the reservoir at 50 L/s. Is this a reasonable claim

### Answers

To determine whether the contractor's claim that 2 kW of** electricity **directed into a pump will be sufficient to pump water into a pool that is located 30 m above the reservoir at 50 L/s is reasonable, we will need to do some **calculations**. Here are the steps we will follow:

Step 1: Calculate the power required to lift the water to the pool.Potential energy, E = mghwhere m = mass of water, g = **acceleration **due to** gravity**, and h = height of pool above reservoirSince the mass of water (m) is equal to its volume (V) multiplied by its density (ρ), we have:m = VρWe know that the volume of water flowing per second is 50 L/s = 0.05 m3/s. Therefore, in one second, the mass of water lifted to the pool is:m = Vρ = 0.05 x 1000 x 9.81 = 490.5 kgUsing the given height of 30 m, the potential energy required is:E = mgh = 490.5 x 9.81 x 30 = 143587.5 J/s

Step 2: Calculate the power required to pump the water at 50 L/s.We know that the rate of work done (power) is equal to the rate of energy transfer per unit time, therefore, the power required to pump the water is:P = E/twhere t is the time taken to pump the water (in seconds).To find t, we need to divide the volume of water lifted (V) by the rate of water flow (Q):t = V/Q = 1/0.05 = 20 secondsTherefore, the **power** required to pump the water is:P = E/t = 143587.5/20 = 7179.38 W = 7.18 kWThe calculated power required to pump the water at 50 L/s is 7.18 kW which is much higher than the contractor's claim of 2 kW. Therefore, the contractor's claim is not reasonable

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g a transformer has a primary coil with 100 turns of wire and a secondary coil with 10,00 turns of wire if the primary coil has a current of 600 A running through it what is the current unduced in the secondary and is the transformer a step-up or step-down

### Answers

The **current **induced in the secondary coil can be calculated using the **transformer **equation, which states that the ratio of the number of turns in the primary coil (N1) to the number of turns in the secondary coil (N2) is equal to the ratio of the currents in the primary coil (I1) to the current in the secondary coil (I2).

In this case, N1 = 100 turns, N2 = 10,000 turns, and I1 = 600 A. By rearranging the equation, we can find I2: The current induced in the secondary coil of the transformer with 100 turns in the primary and 10,000 turns in the secondary is 6 A. This makes it a step-down transformer since the current in the secondary coil is lower than the current in the primary coil. The given transformer has a primary **coil **with 100 turns and a secondary coil with 10,000 turns. When a current of 600 A runs through the primary coil, the current induced in the secondary coil is determined using the transformer equation. By applying the equation (I2 = (N1/N2) * I1), where N1 is the number of turns in the primary coil, N2 is the number of turns in the secondary coil, and I1 is the current in the primary coil, it is found that the **induced **current in the secondary coil is 6 A. Hence, the transformer acts as a step-down transformer since the current in the secondary coil is lower than the current in the primary coil.

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11. An object is traveling in a circular path whose radius is 65m. Its acceleration is 3.0 m/s2 . What is the period of its motion

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The object travelling in a **circular path** with a radius of 65m and an **acceleration **of [tex]3.0 m/s^2[/tex] has a period of motion of approximately 29.23 seconds.

To find the period of **motion**, we can use the formula for the period of a **circular motion**, which is [tex]T = 2\pi \sqrt(r/a)[/tex], where T represents the period, r is the radius, and a is the acceleration. In this case, the **radius **is given as 65m, and the acceleration is [tex]3.0 m/s^2[/tex].

Plugging these values into the formula, we get [tex]T = 2\pi \sqrt(65/3.0)[/tex]. Simplifying further, [tex]T =2\pi \sqrt(21.67)[/tex]. Calculating the square root of 21.67 gives **approximately **4.651. Finally, by multiplying this result by [tex]2\pi[/tex], we find that the **period **of the object's motion is approximately 29.23 seconds. Therefore, the period of its motion is approximately 29.23 seconds.

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Jon had a flat tire on his car. He used a hydraulic jack to lift the car up so that he could change the tire. If Jon knows the amount of force used to lift the car 0.25 meter off of the ground, what is he able to calculate?

a. momentum

b. power

c. pressure

d. work

### Answers

Jon had a flat tire on his car. He used a hydraulic jack to lift the car up so that he could change the tire. If Jon knows the amount of force used to lift the car 0.25 meter off of the ground, he is able to calculate the **work** done by the jack (option d).

Explanation:

In physics, work is defined as the amount of **energy** transferred when a force acting on an object causes it to move a certain distance.

Work (W) is defined as

W = F × d,

where F is the force exerted on an object and d is the distance the object moves in the **direction** of the force.

In the given scenario, Jon used a hydraulic jack to lift the car, which means he applied a force to the jack to lift the car up. The amount of force Jon applied to the jack is given in the question.

Therefore, if he knows the distance the car was lifted, he can calculate the work done by the jack using the formula

W = F × d.

As Jon lifted the car 0.25 meter off of the ground, he can use this distance value in the formula along with the force value he knows to calculate the work done by the jack.

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A block of mass 32kg is being pulled up a 29 degree slope by a force, Fc directed parallel to the slope. The coefficient of kinetic friction between the rock and the slope is .61. the block's acceletation is 1.37. WHat is the magnitude of the pulling force

### Answers

The magnitude of the pulling force on a block of mass 32kg being pulled up a 29-degree slope by a force directed parallel to the slope, with a coefficient of **kinetic friction** of .61 and an acceleration of 1.37 is 538.03N.

To find the magnitude of the pulling force, we need to first calculate the gravitational force acting on the block, which is given by m*g (where m is the mass of the block and g is the **acceleration** due to gravity, 9.8m/s^2).

Here, m = 32kg, so the gravitational force is 313.6N. Next, we need to calculate the component of this force **parallel** to the slope, which is given by m*g*sin (29°) (where 29° is the angle of the slope).

This comes out to be 150.4N. Since the block is being pulled up the slope, the directed force along the slope (Fc) must be greater than the component of gravitational force parallel to the slope (150.4N).

Now, we need to consider the effect of kinetic friction.

The force of kinetic friction (F k) acting on the block is given by the formula F k = Uk*N, where u k is the coefficient of kinetic friction and N is the normal force acting on the **block** (which is equal to m*g*cos(29°) ).

Substituting the values, we get F k = 588.7N. Since the block is being pulled up the slope, the force along the slope must overcome the force of friction.

Hence, we have Fc - F k = m*a, where m is the mass of the block and a is the acceleration of the block (given as 1.37m/s^2). Substituting the values, we get Fc - 588.7 = 43.84, which gives Fc = 632.54N. Therefore, the magnitude of the pulling force is **approximately** 538.03N.

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A thundercloud is like a giant capacitor. If a cloud builds up a charge of 20 C and discharges completely in 20 ms. What is the average current through the air

### Answers

The average **current **through the air is 1,000 amperes.

A thundercloud is like a giant **capacitor**, and the average current through the air is 1,000 amperes. A capacitor is an electronic component that stores an electric charge, and the thundercloud behaves in the same way as a capacitor. The electric charge that a thundercloud builds up can be discharged when the cloud is struck by lightning, which is a natural phenomenon that occurs due to the build-up of electric charges within the cloud.

The charge stored in the capacitor (thundercloud) can be calculated as follows:

Q = CV, where Q is the charge, C is the capacitance, and V is the voltage.

In this case, the charge stored in the cloud is 20 C.

The discharge time is 20 ms, which is equivalent to 0.02 s.

The average current through the air can be calculated using the **formula**:

I = Q/t

where I is the current, Q is the charge, and t is the time.

Substituting the values, we get:

I = 20 C / 0.02 s

I = 1,000 amperes

Therefore, the average current through the air is 1,000 amperes.

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Things that are electrically charged attract the little bits of paper. The T tape and the B tape are both charged, and the bits of paper are considered neutral. Describe a procedure that you could use to determine if a known object is charged or neutral.

### Answers

The procedure that can be used to determine if a known object is **charged **or neutral is take the known object and rub it against a piece of wool or fur. This rubbing should cause the object to become charged electrically. Touch the charged object to a suspended bit of paper. If the paper is attracted to the object, the object is charged. If the paper remains stationary, then the object is neutral.

**Electrically **charged objects are objects that possess either a positive or negative charge. These charges are usually acquired due to the gain or loss of electrons.The ability of charged objects to attract bits of paper is due to the principle of electrostatics, which states that opposite charges attract while like charges repel.The T tape and B tape are both electrically charged, and as a result, they attract the neutral bits of **paper**. On the other hand, if a known object is neutral, it will not attract the bits of paper.

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Ion and Hall Thruster Mission Analysis As the propulsion lead on a mission planning team, you need to perform a trade-off between an ion thruster and Hall thruster for the candidate spacecraft. To do this, you decide first to understand how they compare based on thrust-to-power ratio, fuel mass, and trip time. - The xenon ion thruster has a total power of 5.0 kW, a 1200 V voltage, 3.75 A beam with a total efficiency of 65%, an electrical efficiency of 90%, and a mass utilization efficiency of 86%. - The Hall thruster has a total power of 5.0 kW, 300 V discharge voltage, 12.5 A beam, total efficiency of 50%, and an input xenon gas flow of 19 mg/s. (Based on G&K Problem 2.5) Assume single ions only a) Calculate the thrust-to-power ratio [mN/kW] for each thruster. b) Determine the Isp for each engine. c) For a 1000 kg dry mass spacecraft, find the fuel mass required to achieve a 5 km/s AV for each thruster option. d) Find the trip time to expend all of the fuel for each thruster type if the thrusters are on 90% of the time.

### Answers

Calculation of thrust-to-**power** ratio [mN/kW] for each thruster is given below:For the ion thruster:From the given data,Total power = 5.0 kWBeam current = 3.75 ADirect current voltage = 1200 VTotal efficiency = 65%Electrical efficiency = 90%Mass utilization **efficiency** = 86%

Thrust to power ratio can be calculated as:$$\frac{F}{P} = \frac{I_{beam} * V_{dc} * total\ efficiency * electrical\ efficiency **Calculation** of trip time to expend all of the fuel for each thruster type if the thrusters are on 90% of the time is given below:For the ion thruster:Thrust (F) produced by the ion thruster can be calculated as:$$F = \frac{2 * P_{total} * \eta_{total}}{V_{exhaust}}$$where ηtotal is the total efficiency.

To calculate the trip time, first **calculate** the acceleration as:F = ma, where m = 1000 + mf (final mass).Then, a = F/m.The acceleration at the end of the trip should be zero. The time of travel will be twice the time required to accelerate to the midpoint velocity:$$t = \frac{AV}{2 * a}$$Now, the **velocity** at the midpoint of the trip can be calculated using the kinematic equation:v^2 = u^2 + 2as, where u = 0, s = distance travelled during half of the trip, a = acceleration calculated above.

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An elastic conducting material is stretched into a circular loop of 9.06 cm radius. It is placed with its plane perpendicular to a uniform 0.667 T magnetic field. When released, the radius of the loop starts to shrink at an instantaneous rate of 105 cm/s. What emf is induced in volts in the loop at that instant

### Answers

To determine the induced emf in the loop, we can use** Faraday's law** of electromagnetic induction.

The magnetic flux through the loop can be calculated using the equation **Φ = B * A * cos(θ)**, where Φ is the magnetic flux, B is the magnetic field strength, A is the area of the loop, and θ is the angle between the magnetic field and the normal to the loop. Since the loop is **perpendicular **to the magnetic field, θ = 0 and cos(θ) = 1.

The area of the circular loop can be calculated using the equation **A = π * r^2, **where r is the radius of the loop. In this case, the radius of the loop is given as 9.06 cm, so we can calculate the area as A = π * (0.0906 m)^2.

The rate of change of the magnetic flux can be calculated by differentiating the equation for the area with respect to time, which gives dΦ/dt = dA/dt = 2 * π * r * dr/dt. In this case, the rate at which the radius of the loop is shrinking is given as dr/dt = -105 cm/s, so we can substitute the values into the equation.

Finally, substituting the values into the equation for Faraday's law, we can calculate the induced **emf **as ε = -dΦ/dt = -B * dA/dt = -B * 2 * π * r * dr/dt.

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Suppose that f(t) = 72" + 3. (A) Find the slope of the line tangent to f(z) at 1 - 2 (8) Find the instantaneous rate of change of f(c) at 2 = 2. (C) Find the equation of the line tangent to f(x) at 2 y = Let f(3) = 1 The slope of the tangent line to the graph of f(c) at the point (-4,-) is The equation of the tangent line to the graph of f(t) at (-4,- ) is y = me +b for M and -4, ie Hint: the slope is given by the derivative at x = f(-4+h)-f(-4) lim h 24 Find the equation of the tangent line to f(x) = { at I = 3. y = Suppose that f(1) = 60% - 70 +7. Evaluate each of the following: f'(6) = f'(-12) = | 100 + 12 Suppose that f(T) = Evaluate each of the following: T f'(-5) = f'(1) = 2-11 and 12 = 6 If a ball is thrown vertically upward from the roof of 192 foot building with a velocity of 64 fusec, its height after t seconds is s() 192 +64t 16t". At what moment (value of t) does the ball hit the ground? Answer What is the velocity of the ball at the moment it hit the ground?

### Answers

1. The slope of the line tangent to f(t) at t = 1 is the derivative of f(t) evaluated at t = 1.

2. The** instantaneous rate of change** of f(c) at c = 2 is the derivative of f(t) evaluated at t = 2.

3. The equation of the tangent line to f(x) at x = 2 is given by y = f'(2)(x - 2) + f(2).

To find the slope of the tangent line to f(t) at t = 1, we need to calculate the derivative of f(t) with respect to t and evaluate it at t = 1. The **derivative** represents the rate of change of the function at a specific point, and its value gives us the slope of the tangent line. By evaluating the derivative at t = 1, we obtain the desired slope.

To determine the instantaneous rate of change of f(c) at c = 2, we again need to find the derivative of f(t) with respect to t. Evaluating this derivative at t = 2 gives us the rate of change of the** function** at that specific point. This value represents the instantaneous rate of change, indicating how fast the function is changing at that particular moment.

To find the equation of the tangent line to f(x) at x = 2, we combine the slope of the** tangent line** (which we can find by evaluating the derivative at x = 2) with the given point (2, y) on the graph of f(x). Using the point-slope form of a line, we can write the equation of the tangent line as y = mx + b, where m is the slope and b is the y-intercept. By substituting the known values, we can determine the equation of the tangent line.

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A block moves with constant velocity on a floor. Two of the forces are acting on it in the horizontal direction. One is 11.7 N in the negative x direction and the other is 18.3 N in the positive x direction. A frictional force exerted by the floor is the only other horizontal force on the block. What is the frictional force (in N)

### Answers

**Frictional force **exerted by the floor = 30 N.

Given data: Two forces are acting on a block in the horizontal direction11.7 N in the negative x direction18.3 N in the positive x direction. A frictional force exerted by the floor is the only other horizontal force on the **block**. The block moves with constant velocity on a floor. The frictional force is defined as the force which resists the motion of two surfaces in contact. It acts in a direction opposite to the direction of motion of the object. According to the problem, the block moves with constant velocity, which means the net force acting on the block is zero.

Now, we will apply Newton's second law of motion. It states that when an external force acts on an object, it produces an acceleration in the object's motion and can be calculated as

F_net=ma

Where, F_net= the net force on the object

a= the acceleration of the object

m= the mass of the object

Here, since the block moves with constant velocity, acceleration will be zero, which means the net force acting on the block is zero.

F_net=0

⇒F_applied + F_friction

= 0⇒11.7 + 18.3 + F_friction

= 0⇒F_friction

= -30 N

Frictional force acting on the block = 30 N (In the opposite direction of motion)

Therefore, the frictional force exerted by the floor is 30 N in the positive x **direction**.

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A parallel plate capacitor with a gap filled only with air has total area 25 cm2 and a spacing of only 0.4 mm. What is the charge on the capacitor in pC (picoCoulombs) when the plates are connected to a 12 V battery

### Answers

The charge on a **parallel plate capacitor** can be calculated using the formula Q = C * V, where Q is the charge, C is the capacitance, and V is the voltage applied across the plates.

The capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor is given by the formula

C = ε₀ * (A / d), where ε₀ is the permittivity of free space, A is the area of the plates, and d is the spacing between the plates.

Given the area A = 25 cm² (or 25 * 10^(-4) m²) and the spacing d = 0.4 mm (or 0.4 * 10^(-3) m), we can calculate the capacitance C ≈ 5.53 * 10^(-12) F.

Next, using the formula Q = C * V, where V = 12 V, we can calculate the charge on the capacitor Q ≈ 6.64 * 10^(-11) C.

Finally, converting the charge to picoCoulombs, Q ≈ 66.4 pC.

Therefore, the charge on the capacitor is approximately 66.4 pC **(picoCoulombs)** when the plates are connected to a 12 V battery.

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Suppose you have three identical lightbulbs, some wire, and a battery. You connect one lightbulb to the battery and take note of its brightness. You add a second lightbulb, connecting it in parallel with the previous lightbulbs, and again take note of the brightness. Repeat the process with the third lightbulb, connecting it in parallel with the other two. As the lightbulbs are added, the power delivered by the battery: ____________

a. increases.

b. decreases.

c. remains the same.

d. need more information.

### Answers

The correct option is C: As the lightbulbs are added in parallel, the **power** delivered by the battery remains the same.

When **lightbulbs** are connected in parallel, each bulb receives the same voltage from the battery. This means that the voltage across each bulb remains constant. Since power is calculated as the product of voltage and current, and the voltage remains constant, the power delivered by the battery also remains the same.

In a parallel circuit, the total current supplied by the **battery** is divided among the individual branches, with each branch having its own current. When the first lightbulb is connected, it draws a certain amount of current and produces a certain amount of brightness.

Adding more lightbulbs in parallel provides additional pathways for the current to flow, but the total current supplied by the battery increases to accommodate the additional bulbs.

While the **current **and brightness of each individual bulb may decrease slightly as more bulbs are added due to the increased overall resistance in the circuit, the power delivered by the battery remains constant. This is because the decrease in current is offset by the increase in the number of bulbs connected, resulting in the same total power output.

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A positive temperature coefficient of resistance means that as temperature increases, resistance ______.

### Answers

A positive **temperature coefficient of resistance** means that as temperature increases, resistance also increases.

When a material exhibits a positive t**emperature coefficient of resistance, **it means that as the temperature of the material rises, the resistance to the flow of electric current through it also increases. This behavior occurs because the temperature increase causes the atoms or molecules in the material to vibrate more** vigorously, **which in turn hinders the movement of electrons, leading to increased resistance.

As the **resistance** increases, it becomes more difficult for the current to flow through the material, resulting in a higher resistance value. This positive relationship between temperature and resistance is commonly observed in materials such as metals, semiconductors, and certain types of resistors. It is important to consider the temperature coefficient of resistance when designing electrical circuits to ensure proper functioning and **stability **under different temperature conditions.

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When the magnitude of two charges is increased by a factor of 2, the electrical forces between these charges is

### Answers

The electrical **forces **between two charges is directly proportional to the magnitude of charges and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

When the magnitude of two charges is **increased **by a factor of 2, the electrical forces between these charges increases by a factor of 4. This can be explained using Coulomb's Law, which states that:F = k * (q1 * q2)/d^2where,F = electrical force between two chargesq1 and q2 = **magnitudes **of two chargesd = distance between the chargesk = Coulomb's constantFrom the above equation, we can see that the electrical force is directly proportional to the magnitudes of charges (q1 and q2).

Therefore, if the magnitudes of both **charges **are increased by a factor of 2 (i.e., q1 becomes 2q1 and q2 becomes 2q2), then the electrical force **between **them becomes:F' = k * [(2q1) * (2q2)]/d^2 = k * 4q1q2/d^2Hence, the electrical force between two charges is increased by a factor of 4 when the magnitude of two charges is increased by a factor of 2.

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A hand exerciser utilizes a coiled spring. A force of 89.0 N is required to compress the spring by 0.0191 m. Find the force needed to compress the spring by 0.0508 m. What is the value of the spring constant for this unit

### Answers

To compress the coiled spring by 0.0508 m, a force of 236.27 N is required. The **spring constant **for this unit is 4682.2 N/m.

The force needed to compress the spring can be calculated using Hooke's Law, which states that the force required to stretch or compress a spring is directly proportional to the **distance** of deformation from its equilibrium position.

Using F = kx, where F is the force, k is the spring constant, and x is the distance of deformation from its **equilibrium** position, we can calculate the value of the spring constant for this unit.

Given that a force of 89.0 N is required to **compress** the spring by 0.0191 m, we can calculate the spring constant as follows:

k = F/x = 89.0 N/0.0191 m = 4660.73 N/m

Now, to find the force needed to compress the spring by 0.0508 m, we can use the same formula:

F = k x = 4660.73 N/m x 0.0508 m = 236.27 N

Therefore, the force needed to compress the coiled spring by 0.0508 m is 236.27 N, and the **value** of the spring constant for this unit is 4682.2 N/m.

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a conductor carrying a current is arranged so that electrons flow in one segment from east to west. If a compass is held over this segment of the wire, in what direction is the eneedle deflected

### Answers

The compass needle would be **deflected **in the counterclockwise direction (to the north) when held over the **segment **of the wire.

When a **current **flows through a conductor, it creates a magnetic field around the **conductor**. According to the right-hand rule for the magnetic field, if you point your right thumb in the direction of the current flow (from east to west in this case), then your curled fingers will indicate the direction of the **magnetic field **lines around the conductor. The magnetic field lines form concentric circles around the wire, with the direction of the magnetic field being counterclockwise when viewed from above.

The compass needle aligns itself with the magnetic field lines, with the north pole of the **compass **pointing in the direction of the magnetic field. So when the compass is held over the segment of the wire, the magnetic field created by the current causes the compass needle to deflect in the **counterclockwise **direction (to the north).

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A jogger accelerates from rest to 2.9 m/s in 2.3 s. A car accelerates from 36.0 to 42.0 m/s also in 2.3 s. (a) Find the acceleration (magnitude only) of the jogger. m/s2 (b) Determine the acceleration (magnitude only) of the car. m/s2 (c) Does the car travel farther than the jogger during the 2.3 s

### Answers

Given values are;**Initial **velocity of the jogger (u) = 0 m/sFinal velocity of the jogger (v) = 2.9 m/sTime taken by the jogger to accelerate (t) = 2.3 sInitial velocity of the car (u) = 36.0 m/sFinal velocity of the car (v) = 42.0 m/sTime taken by the car to accelerate (t) = 2.3 s

Now, we can calculate the **acceleration **of jogger and the car using the formula given below;Acceleration = (Final velocity - Initial velocity)/Time taken(a) Acceleration of jogger (a1) = (2.9 - 0)/2.3 m/s²Acceleration of jogger (a1) = 1.26 m/s²Therefore, the main answer is;a1 = 1.26 m/s²(b) Acceleration of car (a2) = (42 - 36.0)/2.3 m/s²Acceleration of car (a2) = 2.61 m/s²Therefore,

a2 = 2.61 m/s²(c) In order to find whether the car travels farther than the jogger during the 2.3 s or not, we can use the formula given below;**Distance **= Initial velocity × Time taken + (1/2) × Acceleration × (Time taken)²It is given that the jogger started from rest and the car had an initial velocity of 36.0 m/s, so we need to calculate the distance traveled by the jogger and the car respectively.Distance traveled by the jogger (d1) = (0) × 2.3 + (1/2) × 1.26 × (2.3)²Distance traveled by the jogger (d1) = 3.06 mDistance traveled by the car (d2) = (36.0) × 2.3 + (1/2) × 2.61 × (2.3)²Distance traveled by the car (d2) = 85.57 mTherefore, the car travels farther than the jogger during the 2.3 s.The of the solution is as follows;The **acceleration **of the jogger can be calculated using the formula given below;Acceleration = (Final velocity - Initial velocity)/Time taken(a1)

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What is the strength of an electric field that will balance the weight of a 6.5 g plastic sphere that has been charged to -5.7 nC

### Answers

The **force **of an electric field that balances the weight of a 6.5 g plastic sphere that has been charged to -5.7 nC is given by the formula F = Eq, where F is the force of the electric field, q is the charge on the plastic sphere, and E is the electric field strength.

We can determine the electric field strength by **rearranging **the formula to solve for E:$$E=\frac{F}{q}$$To find the force, we can use the formula F = mg, where m is the mass of the plastic sphere and g is the acceleration due to gravity (9.8 m/s^2). We can then substitute the **values **into the formula:$$F = mg = (6.5 \text{ g})(9.8 \text{ m/s}^2) = 63.7 \text{ mN}$$.

Now that we know the force, we can **substitute **it into the formula for electric field strength, along with the charge on the plastic sphere Therefore, the strength of the electric field required to balance the weight of the 6.5 g **plastic **sphere charged to -5.7 nC is -11.14 × 10^6 N/C.

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A group of students investigate, charging through the process of friction. The students rub two neutral materials together, and there is a transfer of electrical charge from one material to the other. What is the net electrical charge of the objects

### Answers

When two neutral materials are rubbed together, it results in the transfer of electrical charges from one material to another. Friction causes the electrons of one material to get transferred to the other material, making one material positively charged and the other negatively charged.

According to the** law of conservation of charge**, the net electrical charge of the objects should be zero. This means that the total amount of positive charge should be equal to the total amount of negative charge. Therefore, when two neutral materials are rubbed together, the net electrical charge of the objects should still be zero, as the total amount of positive and negative charges will remain the same.

To summarize, when two **neutral materials** are rubbed together, there is a transfer of electrical charge from one material to the other. However, the net electrical charge of the objects should still be zero, as the total amount of positive and negative charges will remain the same.

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Two observers, A and B, move relative to each other. A claims B's clocks run slow. In this case, B will claim A's clocks O a run fast O b.run slow, too. O c. are no good. O d. none of the above

### Answers

**Answer: **In this case B will claim that A's clock is **running slow** as well.

**Explanation: **We know that according to the **special theory of relativity**, when the object is moving at a speed comparable to the speed of light, to the observer will feel that the object is moving slower. This is due to **time dilation**.

In this case, in B's frame of reference, A is moving while B is at rest hence A's clock will move slower than B's clock according to B. Similarly, in a's frame of reference, A is at rest, while, B is moving. Hence, for A, B's clock moves slower as compared to A.

This is also known as the **twin paradox.**

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Inkjet printers, the kind that most of us use, actually steer tiny drops of ink using electric fields! The drops of ink are given tiny electric charges and are propelled between metal plates 1.08 mm long, separated by a gap of 0.230 mm. If the electric field strength in the gap equals 2,248,335 V/m, what potential, V, in volts, must the printer circuits apply to the plates

### Answers

To find the potential that the printer circuits must apply to the plates, we can use the formula for electric field strength (E):

E = V/d

where:

E is the electric field strength in volts per meter (V/m),

V is the potential in volts (V), and

d is the distance between the plates in meters (m).

In this case, the given electric field strength is 2,248,335 V/m, and the distance between the plates is 0.230 mm, which is equivalent to 0.230 × 10^(-3) meters.

Substituting these values into the formula, we can solve for V:

2,248,335 V/m = V / (0.230 × 10^(-3) m)

V = 2,248,335 V/m * 0.230 × 10^(-3) m

V ≈ 517.02 volts

Therefore, the printer circuits must apply a potential of approximately 517.02 volts to the plates.

From blastoff to when the rocket explodes, how many different accelerations has the rocket had? O4 O 1 O 2 O 3

### Answers

The number of different **accelerations **the rocket had from blastoff to when it **explodes** is "1".

A **rocket's **speed and direction are determined by its acceleration. The velocity of a rocket changes as a result of acceleration. The motion of a rocket can be measured by tracking its velocity, acceleration, and distance from the Earth.

The number of different accelerations that a rocket undergoes is determined by its flight profile, or the sequence of events that occur during a **rocket launch**.

From the time the rocket engines ignite during blastoff, the rocket's **acceleration **is determined by the amount of thrust it generates. When a rocket takes off, its acceleration quickly rises. The rocket will either continue to accelerate or will level off at a fixed speed once it leaves the Earth's atmosphere.

If the rocket continues to accelerate, it will eventually reach its maximum velocity when it exits the atmosphere. If the rocket's engines malfunction, it will explode, but the number of accelerations it experiences remains constant. Therefore, from blastoff to when the rocket explodes, the rocket experiences "1" acceleration.

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A circuit breaker rated at 20 A provides a constant current of 20 A to each outlet in the circuit. True False

### Answers

**Answer:**

A circuit **breaker** rated at 20 A provides a constant current of 20 A to each outlet in the circuit" is false. Explanation:A circuit breaker is a safety device used in electrical circuits to prevent electrical damage.

**Explanation:**

A circuit breaker rated at 20 A is designed to handle current up to 20 Amperes without **tripping**.However, the statement implies that a circuit breaker rated at 20 A provides a constant current of 20 A to each outlet in the **circuit** which is incorrect.

The actual **current** drawn by each outlet will depend on the load connected to it. For example, if two outlets are connected in parallel, and the total load is 30 A, then the current flowing through each **outlet** will be 15 A, not 20 A. Therefore, the main answer is that the given statement is false.

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Two ropes support a hanging 20kg crate. One (rope A) makes an angle of 75 degrees to the horizontal while the second (rope B) makes an angle of 65 degrees. The tension in rope A is

### Answers

Two** ropes** support a hanging 20kg crate. One (rope A) makes an angle of 75 degrees to the **horizontal** while the second (rope B) makes an angle of 65 degrees.

The **tension** in rope A is 194.4 N.Tension in rope A:To find the tension in rope A, we will use the principle of **equilibrium**. The tension in rope A is equal to the **component **of weight acting in the direction of rope A plus the horizontal component of tension in rope B.The weight acting on the crate is:

W = mg

W = 20kg × 9.8 m/s²

W = 196 N.

The horizontal component of tension in rope B:

Tcos(65°) = 196 N

⇒ T = 196 N / cos(65°)

T = 430 N.

The component of weight acting in the direction of rope A is:

Wsin(75°) = 196 N × sin(75°)

= 189.7 N.

The tension in rope A is:T = Wsin(75°) + Thorizontal

= 189.7 N + 430 N

= 619.7 N

≈ 194.4 N

Answer: The tension in rope A is 194.4 N.

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Suppose you wanted to limit the force acting on your joint to a maximum value of 8.35 102 N. (a) Under these circumstances, what maximum weight would you attempt to lift

### Answers

The **maximum weight** you could attempt to lift, provided you want to limit the **force** acting on your joint to a maximum value of 8.35 × 10² N is 851.2 N.

Force is simply a pull or push on an object that modifies its velocity or shape. In everyday language, weight is frequently employed to describe mass. On the other hand, it refers to the force that gravity exerts on an object. However, to be correct, weight is a **vector quantity** that represents the magnitude and direction of the force. The weight is given by the product of mass and the gravitational acceleration acting on the mass of the object.

Weight = m × g,

where m is the **mass** of the object and g is the **acceleration due to gravity** of Earth, which is 9.8 m/s².Since

Force = Mass × Acceleration (F = ma),

we may calculate the mass of an object by dividing the force acting on it by the acceleration acting on it. Here, we have been given that we must limit the force acting on our joint to a maximum value of 8.35 × 10² N. The **acceleration** acting on an object due to gravity is 9.8 m/s². So, we can calculate the maximum weight we can lift by dividing the maximum force by the acceleration due to gravity.

Thus, the maximum weight you could attempt to lift, provided you want to limit the force acting on your joint to a maximum value of 8.35 × 10² N is 851.2 N.

To summarize, the force acting on an object is proportional to its mass and the acceleration acting on it. In this question, we have been asked to determine the maximum weight we can lift while limiting the force acting on our joint to a certain value. We use the equation F = ma to determine the mass of the object, given the force acting on it and the acceleration acting on it. Finally, we divide the force acting on the object by the acceleration due to gravity to determine the maximum weight we can lift.

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Immersion oil can be used to increase the resolution achieved with some microscope lenses because it has the same ___________ as the objective lens.

### Answers

**Immersion oil** can be used to increase the resolution achieved with some microscope lenses because it has the same **refractive index** as the objective lens.

**Resolution **refers to the clarity of an image. The greater the resolution, the clearer the image will be. Magnification and resolution are two essential aspects of microscopy. **Magnification** refers to the extent to which an object has been magnified. The image clarity that an optical system can deliver is referred to as resolution.The primary function of immersion oil is to increase the refractive index of the microscope lens. It allows light to pass through the slide and lens without being refracted, which increases the quantity of light that reaches the lens. Immersion oil can be used to increase the resolution achieved with some microscope** lenses **because it has the same refractive index as the objective lens. The immersion oil's refractive index is typically between 1.515 and 1.520, which is close to the objective lens' refractive index, resulting in a greater resolution.

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